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Cobalt
 
Unknown - April 13, 2018
Metal Bulletin’s battery raw materials team answers some of the key questions raised during our recent web seminar, discussing electric vehicle subsidies, battery chemistries and raw material supplies.
What is the likelihood of cobalt being substituted by cheaper materials? Currently, there is no risk of cobalt substitution because the most frequently used Li-ion battery technologies - such as NCA, NMC111, NMC532, NMC622, and NMC811 (which is expected to gain more acceptance in 2018) - all use cobalt…A reduction in the use of cobalt per battery cathode is likely, though. NMC622, NMC811 and NCA are considered preferable for use in new energy vehicles, but contain less cobalt compared with NMC111, NMC 532, or any other Li-ion battery cathode such as LCO…Efforts to reduce the cobalt content in battery cathodes were started at least 10 years ago amid concerns about cobalt sourcing…The cathode batteries currently used in cars (NCA and NMC) took 30 years to develop, showing how long it can take for battery cathode technologies to move from a laboratory stage onto the roads…According to market participants, NMC532 has about 12.6% cobalt content, NMC622 has about 10-12% and NMC811 has about 6% at the moment.
 
Carbon Brief - April 12, 2018
The deployment of renewables and electric vehicles is expected to skyrocket as the world strives to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. These...
political instability, around a fifth of the DRC’s cobalt is drawn out by artisanal miners working with their hands, with documented cases
The deployment of renewables and electric vehicles is expected to skyrocket as the world strives to reduce greenhouse gas emissions…These low-carbon technologies currently rely on a handful of key metals, some of which have been little-used to date. This raises questions over whether enough of these materials can be mined to ensure a large-scale rollout…Two metals in particular, lithium and cobalt, have seen supply chain fears in recent years, although many other metals are used…In his 2016 book The Elements of Power, David S Abraham argued that what he calls “rare metals” – those, such as cobalt and REEs, produced in hundreds or thousands of tonnes per year rather than millions of tonnes, such as copper – are now the base of the world’s modern industries, including the clean-energy industry. The world is fast becoming as dependent on these metals as it is on oil, he says. He writes: “Today companies are using elements that scientists dismissed as mere impurities decades ago… We are now witnessing a fundamental shift in our resource demands. At no point in human history have we used more elements, in more combinations, and in increasingly refined amounts. Our ingenuity will soon outpace our materials supplies.”…As cobalt is mainly mined as a byproduct of copper and nickel, higher prices will not always stimulate new supply as they might in other commodity markets. Only around1% of cobalt was mined from primary cobalt mines in 2016…As well as China’s near-monopoly on rare earth production detailed above, for example, it also currently dominates the refining process of cobalt material, producing more than 80% of the cobalt salts needed for batteries. In 2016, seven of the 10 largest producers in the DRC were Chinese-owned…Companies are increasingly making deals to ensure sufficient raw material supplies for their batteries…Other firms, such as Apple, Tesla and Volkswagen, are also seeking to buy cobalt directly from producers. In a recent tender for five years’ worth of Cobalt, Volkswagen said a secure and sustainable supply of raw materials for the lithium-ion battery will be “the key factor to become e-mobility market leader”.
 
 
EVs
 
Asia Pacific Equipment News - April 12, 2018
Fukushima, Japan: Lithium-ion batteries from electric vehicles (EVs) will be given a new life at Japanese automaker Nissan’s Namie factory,...
and nickel. As resources such as lithium and cobalt—fundamental materials in lithium-ion batteries powering EVs—become more critical in the
“By reusing spent EV batteries, we wanted to raise the (residual) value of EVs and make them more accessible.”…Currently, the process is customised predominantly for the electric-powered first generation Nissan Leaf…However, batteries that have fallen below 80 percent of their energy capacity are not used for the Leaf recycling programme but are reassembled for lower-energy vehicles like golf carts, forklifts or for low-intensity functions in street lamps…As resources such as lithium and cobalt—fundamental materials in lithium-ion batteries powering EVs—become more critical in the near future, this sustainable treatment of worn batteries can potentially serve its environmental purpose in decreasing the pressure on scarce resources.
 
 
Congo
 
Human Rights Watch - April 13, 2018
The government of the Democratic Republic of Congo is putting its own short-term interests over the well-being of the Congolese people. It...
of increased regional instability. Congo is Africa’s biggest copper producer and the world’s largest source of cobalt–which has tripled in
The government of the Democratic Republic of Congo is putting its own short-term interests over the well-being of the Congolese people. It is refusing to attend and encouraging others to stay home from today’s international conference in Geneva, a United Nations-led initiative to raise $1.7 billion for emergency assistance to over 13 million people in Congo affected by recent violence…Government officials deny that there’s a humanitarian crisis. This appears related to a sinister attempt to attract foreign investment and further enrich those in power, while avoiding outside scrutiny…Much of the recent violence is linked to the country’s worsening political crisis. President Joseph Kabila has delayed elections and used violence, repression, and corruption to entrench his hold on power beyond the end of his constitutionally mandated two-term limit on December 19, 2016…Kabila has presided over a system of entrenched impunity in which those most responsible for abuses are routinely rewarded with positions, wealth, and power. Congolese security forces have carried out or orchestrated much of the violence, in some cases by creating or backing local armed groups. Well-placed security and intelligence sources have told us that efforts to sow violence and instability are an apparently deliberate “strategy of chaos” to justify further election delays.
 
Yahoo! News - April 13, 2018
1 / 2 A Congolese woman and her child, seen at a makeshift camp for Internally Displaced Persons (IDP's) and returnees in Kabutunga, are...
have died in anti-Kabila protests. - Crisis-ridden - A country four times the size of France, the DRC has been chronically unstable since
Donors meet in Geneva on Friday in a bid to stump up nearly $1.7 billion (1.38 billion euros) for the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), facing a crisis that experts say could become a tragedy…But -- in a position that has deepened the country's political divisions -- the DRC is boycotting the talks…Dark clouds hang over the DRC's political future…A country four times the size of France, the DRC has been chronically unstable since it gained independence from Belgium in 1960. Two wars took place from 1996-97 and 1998-2003, sucking in other African countries and causing millions of deaths in violence, disease and starvation.
 
 
fortuneminerals
For further information about the NICO Project and its Mineral Reserves, please refer to the Technical Report on the Feasibility Study for NICO, entitled "Technical Report on the Feasibility Study for the NICO-Gold-Cobalt-Bismuth-Copper Project, Northwest Territories, Canada", dated April 2, 2014 and prepared by Micon, which has been filed on SEDAR and is available under the Company's profile at www.sedar.com.

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The materials appearing in this email contain forward-looking information. This forward-looking information includes, or may be based upon, estimates, forecasts, and statements as to management’s expectations with respect to, among other things, the size and quality of the Company’s mineral resources, progress in permitting and development of mineral properties, timing and cost for placing the Company’s mineral projects into production, costs of production, amount and quality of metal products recoverable from the Company’s mineral resources, anticipated revenues, earnings and cash flows from the Company's mineral projects, demand and market outlook for metals and coal and future metal and coal prices. Forward-looking information is based on the opinions and estimates of management at the date the information is given, and is subject to a variety of risks and uncertainties and other factors that could cause actual events or results to differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking information. These factors include the inherent risks involved in the exploration and development of mineral properties, uncertainties with respect to the receipt or timing of required permits and regulatory approvals, the uncertainties involved in interpreting drilling results and other geological data, fluctuating metal and coal prices, the possibility of project cost overruns or unanticipated costs and expenses, the possibility that production from the Company's mineral projects may be less than anticipated, uncertainties relating to the availability and costs of financing needed in the future, uncertainties related to metal recoveries and other factors. Mineral resources that are not mineral reserves do not have demonstrated economic viability. Inferred mineral resources are considered too speculative geologically to have economic considerations applied to them that would enable them to be categorized as mineral reserves. There is no certainty that mineral resources will be converted into mineral reserves. Readers are cautioned to not place undue reliance on forward-looking information because it is possible that predictions, forecasts, projections and other forms of forward-looking information will not be achieved by the Company. The forward-looking information contained herein is made as of the date hereof and the Company assumes no responsibility to update them or revise it to reflect new events or circumstances, except as required by law.

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